Tormach

TORMACH PCNC440
TORMACH PCNC440

The Tormach PCNC440 is our CNC Mill for student use, used to cut 2.5D or 3D shapes out of metals.
MakerSpace Orientation and specialized training (by appointment) are required to use this machine. Email tandon-makerspace@nyu.edu to request training. Visit our Training Page to learn more.
It is recommended that you are comfortable using Fusion 360 (including CAM), have some experience with CNC machines, and know some basics about cutting metals before using this machine. After completing the basic Tormach Training, your NYU ID will be entered into the system to give you access to the machine. A member of MakerStaff must be present while you are using the machine until you are granted full access upon showing proficiency in operating the machine.

Software
Fusion 360 (Recommended for generating toolpaths)
For Fusion or any other CAM software, use a post-processor designed for Tormach PathPilot.

PathPilot (Embedded controller software)

Specifications 
Table Size:   18" x 6.3" (457mm x 160mm)
Travel (X ⋅ Y ⋅ Z):   10” x 6.25” x 10” (254mm x 159mm x 254mm)
Spindle Speed:   300 - 10,000 RPM

Allowed Materials
(You must bring your own material to cut on the Tormach)
Consider the alloy and how machinable it is before buying material.
Aluminum
Brass
Bronze
Solid Copper
Mild Steel
Stainless Steel
Titanium
Most Plastics (consider Delrin)
Alloy Guide (Speedy Metals)

Available Cutting Tools
HSS Jobber Drills (TiN coated) - 1/16"-1/2" by 1/64" increment
HSS Spot Drills - 1/4", 3/8", 1/2"
HSS 2 Flute End Mills - 1/8", 3/16", 1/4", 5/16", 3/8"
HSS 4 Flute End Mills - 1/8", 3/16", 1/4", 5/16", 3/8"
Carbide 2 Flute End Mill (TiAlN coated) - 3/8"
Carbide 4 Flute End Mill (TiAlN coated) - 3/8"

Feeds & Speeds, Cutting Parameters
Setting an appropriate spindle RPM (speed) and tool movement rate (feed) is one the most important considerations when machining.
These depend on the material to be cut, cutting tool used, width of cut (WOC), depth of cut (DOC), and machine used (the Tormach in this case).
Not sure where to start? Use data from the cutting tool's manufacturer when possible.
Otherwise, select a WOC that is 5% to 25% of the tool's diameter, and DOC of up to 50% of the tool's diameter.
Note: WOC goes by many names. Stepover, cut width, radial depth of cut, radial engagement, optimal load. So does DOC. Pass depth, Z passes, multiple depths, stepdown, etc.
The actual feed and speed can be calculated using SFM and IPT data from the tool manufacturer, or use an online calculator like these:
Simple Feed & Speed Calculator - Choose Milling or Drilling and then Material. Enter tool diameter and 10,000 as "machine max" spindle speed. The rest is calculated.
Advanced Speed & Feed Calculator - Read the Instruction link at the top of the page, especially the 'Beginners - READ ME' section. The Tormach's max speed and HP should already be filled in at the top when using the URL in this link.

Fusion 360 Tool Library
These include tools available in the MakerSpace, and are programmed with feeds and speeds already. Be aware these speeds may need to be adjusted based on the actual composition of the material being cut.
These can be imported into Fusion by right clicking on the 'Local' tool library -> Import Tool Library, or: How to import a cloud tool library
Fusion 360 Tool Libraries (Google Drive)

Resources:
MakerSpace Fusion 360 CAM Guide
Fusion 360 Tutorials
NYC CNC (Fusion 360 & Tormach specific tutorials)
Tormach Project Library
Tormach G-Code Reference
Guerilla Guide to CNC Machining & Moldmaking
Using the rotary (MakerSpace Blog)
Using an edge finder to find a hole center

View full guide on Tormach PCNC 440

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